The Cognitive Developmetal Approach

Introduction
Many different models of coaching now exist. These include well established GROW model which is the acronym for GOAL, REALITY, OPTIONS, WILL (or WRAP-UP) (see Whitmore 1996; 2004). Dembkowski and Elridge, (2003) developed the ACHIEVE model which represents: Assess current situation; Creative brainstorming of alternative to current situation; Hone goals; Initiate options; Evaluative options; Valid action programme design; Encourage momentum. Libri (2004) developed the POSITIVE model which represents Purpose, Observations, Strategy, Insight, Team, Initiate, Value and Encourage. Jackson and McKergow,(2007) describe a solution focused coaching model known
as OSKAR which represents Outcome, Scaling, Know-howand resources, Affirm and action, Review.Cognitive behavioural and rational emotive models of coachinginclude Albert Ellis’ well known ABCDE model (see Ellis et al., 1997; Palmer 2002) which stands for Activating event or situation, Beliefs, Consequences, Disputation of the beliefs, Effective and new approach to dealing with the issue or problem. Edgerton developed the SPACE model (see Edgerton and Palmer, 2005), which represents Social context,
Physical, Action, Cognitions and Emotions. Problem-solving models have also been developed for training, counselling, stress management and coaching (eg Wasik,1984; Palmer and Burton, 1996; Palmer 1997 a, b) and used within cognitive- behavioural coaching (see Neenan and Palmer, 2001 a,b) and coaching psychology (Palmer and Szymanska, 2007). The development of the PRACTICE model of coaching D'Zurilla, Goldfried and Nezu developed a number of problem-solving methods that are well documented and have been applied to a wide range of issues and settings.(D'Zurilla and Goldfried, 1971; D'Zurilla, 1986; D’Zurilla & Nezu, 1999). Wasik (1984) described a simple seven-step problem-solving model that has been applied to the fields of counseling, psychotherapy, management, coaching and training. The steps are (Wasik, 1984)


1 .Problem identification
2. Goal selection
3. Generation of alternatives
4. Consideration of consequences
5. Decision making
6. Implementation
7. Evaluation


Palmer (2007 a, b) developed the PRACTICE model of coaching which is an adaptation of Wasik’s (1984)
seven-step sequence. A key and important difference is that the PRACTICE framework includes solutionseeking and implementation methods based on solution focused practice (Jackson and McKergow, 2007; O’Connell and Palmer, 2007). For example, at the start of the first coaching meeting the coachee is given an opportunity to talk about him or herself without immediately focusing on their problem(s), issues or concerns thereby allowing the coach to learn more about them (O’Connell, 2003). During the coaching process the coach will draw attention to the coachee any relevant examples of their competence, strengths and qualities and also build on ‘exceptions’ when the presenting problem or issue is less of a problem. Throughout the whole process of the coaching meeting, scaling questions are used to monitor where the coachee currently is, if progress is being made and what the coachee would need to do to improve the rating. (For a fuller explanation of the solution focused coaching approach, see Green and Grant, 2003; O’Connell and Palmer, 2007; Palmer, Grant, and O’Connell, 2007).